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Alpha-Chymotrypsin

Alpha-Chymotrypsin : Chymotrypsin is a digestive enyme that can perform proteolysis. Chymotrypsin preferentially cleaves peptide amide bonds where the carboxyl side of the amide bond (the P1 position) is a tyrosine, tryptophan, or phenylalanine. These amino acids contain an aromatic ring in their sidechain that fits into a 'hydrophobic pocket' (the S1 position) of the enzyme. The hydrophobic and shape complementarity between the peptide substrate P1 sidechain and the enzyme S1binding cavity accounts for the substrate specificity of this enzyme. Chymotrypsin also hydrolyzes other amide bonds in peptides at slower rates, particularly those containing leucine at the P1 position.

Arginin Hydrocloride

Arginine Hydrochloride : is a chemical building block called “an amino acid.” It is obtained from the diet and is necessary for the body to make proteins. L-arginine is found in red meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products. It can also be made in a laboratory and used as medicine.

L-arginine is used for heart and blood vessel conditions including congestive heart failure (CHF), chest pain, high blood pressure, and coronary artery disease. L-arginine is also used for recurrent pain in the legs due to blocked arteries (intermittent claudication), decreased mental capacity in the elderly (senile dementia), erectile dysfunction (ED), and male infertility.

Some people use L-arginine for preventing the common cold, improving kidney function after a kidney transplant, high blood pressure during pregnancy (pre-eclampsia), improving athletic performance, boosting the immune system, and preventing inflammation of the digestive tract in premature infants.

L-arginine is used in combination with a number of over-the-counter and prescription medications for various conditions. For example, L-arginine is used along with ibuprofen for migraine headaches; with conventional chemotherapy drugs for treating breast cancer; with other amino acids for treating weight loss in people with AIDS; and with fish oil and other supplements for reducing infections, improving wound healing, and shortening recovery time after surgery.

Some people apply L-arginine to the skin to speed wound healing and for increasing blood flow to cold hands and feet, especially in people with diabetes. It is also used as a cream for sexual problems in both men and women.

Clobetasol Propionate

Clobetasol Propionate: is acorticosteroid used to treat various skin disorders including eczema and psoriasis. It is also highly effective for contact dermatitis caused by exposure to poison ivy/oak. Clobetasol belongs to US Class I (Europe: class IV) of the corticosteroids, making it one of the most potent available. It comes in shampoo, mousse, ointment andemollient cream presentations. It has very high potency and typically should not be used with occlusive dressings, or for extended continuous use (beyond two weeks). It is also used to treat several auto-immune diseases including alopecia areata, vitiligoand lichen planus (auto immune skin nodules).

Clotrimazole

Clotrimazole is an antifungal medicationcommonly used in the treatment of fungal infections (of both humans and other animals) such as vaginal yeast infections, oral thrush, and ringworm. It is also used to treat athlete's foot and jock itch. Medical uses


It is commonly available as an over-the-counter substance in various dosage forms, such as a cream, and also (especially in the case of ear infection) as a combination medicine. It is also available as a troche or throat lozenge (prescription only). For ear infection, it is often applied in liquid form, as ear drops. Fungal infections can be slow to clear up, so the usual course for an anti-fungal agent is, in general, longer than the typical 3–7 days of an antibiotic. Clotrimazole is also commonly found in conjunction with Betamethasone, known as Lotriderm, to add steroid properties. Additionally, Clotrimazole is used to treat the sickling of cells (related to sickle cell anemia) by blocking ion channels in the RBC (red blood cell) membrane, keeping ions and water within the cell.

Codein Phosphate

Codein phosphate : is an opiate used for its analgesic,antitussive, and antidiarrheal properties. Codeine is the second-most predominantalkaloid in opium, at up to three percent; it is much more prevalent in the Iranian poppy (Papaver bractreatum), and codeine is extracted from this species in some places although the below-mentioned morphine methylation process is still much more common. It is considered the prototype of the weak to midrange opioids(tramadol, dextropropoxyphene, dihydrocodeine, hydrocodone).

Medical uses

Codeine is used to treat mild to moderate pain and to relieve cough.[2] Codeine is also used to treat diarrhea and diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome, althoughloperamide (which is available OTC for milder diarrhea), diphenoxylate, paregoric or even laudanum (also known as Tincture of Opium) are more frequently used to treat severe diarrhea.[3]

Formulations

Codeine is marketed as both a single-ingredient drug and in combination preparations with the analgesic acetaminophen (paracetamol) (as co-codamol, e.g. brands Paracod, Panadeine, Paramol, and the Tylenol with codeine series including Tylenol 3 and 4); with the analgesic acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) (as co-codaprin); or with the NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) ibuprofen (as Nurofen Plus). These combinations provide greater pain relief than either agent alone (drug synergy). Codeine is also commonly marketed in products containing codeine with other pain killers or muscle relaxers, as well as codeine mixed with phenacetin (Emprazil With Codeine No. 1, 2, 3, and 4), naproxen, indomethacin, diclofenac and others as well as more complex mixtures including such mixtures as aspirin + paracetamol + codeine ± caffeine ± antihistamines and other agents such as those mentioned above.

Codeine-only products can be obtained with a prescription as a time release tablet (e.g., Codeine Contin 100 mg and Perduretas 50 mg). Codeine is also marketed in cough syrups with zero to a half-dozen other active ingredients, and a linctus (e.g., Paveral) for all of the uses for which codeine is indicated.

Injectable codeine is available for subcutaneous or intramuscular injection; intravenous injection can cause a serious reaction that can progress to anaphylaxis. Codeine suppositories are also marketed in some countries.

Adverse effects

Common effects other than analgesia associated with the use of codeine include euphoria, itching, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness,dry mouth, miosis, orthostatic hypotension, urinary retention, depression, constipation and coughing (which is a paradoxical symptom).[4] Some people may also have an allergic reaction to codeine, such as the swelling of skin and rashes.[5]

Codeine and morphine as well as opium were used for control of hormones, diabetes and random boners until relatively recently, and still are in rare cases in some countries, and the hypoglycaemic effect of codeine, although usually weaker than that of morphine, diamorphine, or hydromorphone, can lead to cravings for sugar.

Tolerance to many of the effects of codeine develops with prolonged use, including therapeutic effects. The rate at which this occurs develops at different rates for different effects, with tolerance to the constipation-inducing effects developing particularly slowly for instance.

A potentially serious adverse drug reaction, as with other opioids, is respiratory depression. This depression is dose-related and is the mechanism for the potentially fatal consequences of overdose. As codeine is metabolized to morphine, morphine can be passed through breast milk in potentially lethal amounts, fatally depressing the respiration of a breastfed baby.[6][7]

Withdrawal and dependence

As with other opiate-based pain killers, chronic use of codeine can cause physical dependence. When physical dependence has developed, withdrawal symptoms may occur if a person suddenly stops the medication. Withdrawal symptoms include: drug craving, runny nose, yawning, sweating, insomnia, weakness, stomach cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle spasms, chills, irritability, and pain. To minimize withdrawal symptoms, long-term users should gradually reduce their codeine medication under the supervision of a healthcare professional.[8] A support group called CodeineFree exists to help people who have found themselves dependent on codeine.

Pharmacology

Codeine was once considered to be a morphine prodrug, since it was thought that its analgesia was due in large part to its O-demethylation to the much more powerful opiate, morphine. However, more recent research shows that 80% of codeine is conjugated with glucuronic acid to codeine-6-glucuronide (C6G), which is the metabolite that is most responsible for codeine's analgesia, although the relative contributions of codeine-6-glucuronide and morphine to analgesia are unclear and highly debated. Only 5% of the dose is O-demethylated to morphine, which in turn is immediately glucuronidated at the 3- and 6-position and excreted renally.[9][10] A portion (~ 15%) of the codeine is N-demethylized to norcodeine.[11] It is less potent than morphine and has a correspondingly lower dependence-liability than morphine.[12] Like all opioids, continued use of codeine induces physical dependence and can be psychologically addictive. However, due to its low potency, the withdrawal symptoms are relatively mild compared to closely related opioids such as hydrocodone and oxycodone. As such, codeine has a lower physical dependence liability than most other opioids.[13]

A dose of approximately 200 mg (oral) of codeine must be administered to give analgesia approximately equivalent to 30 mg (oral) of morphine (Rossi, 2004). However, codeine in general isn't used in single doses greater than 60 mg (and no more than 240 mg in 24 hours).[14][15] When analgesia beyond 60 mg of codeine is required, stronger opioids such as hydrocodone or oxycodone are utilized.[16] When used to relieve dry coughs, codeine is used in doses ranging from 5-15 mg and is usually mixed as a syrup with other drugs such as promethazine[17] which is an antihistamine with strong sedative activity (some formulations come with different types of antihistamines),[18] guaifenesin which is an expectorant,[19] and other drugs. When codeine isn't effective in relieving stronger dry coughs, then the opioid hydrocodone is used instead.

Codeine is metabolized to C6G by uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase UGT2B7, and, since only about 5% of codeine is metabolized by cytochrome P450 CYP2D6, the current evidence is that codeine-6-glucuronide (C6G) is the primary active compound.[20] Claims about the supposed "ceiling effect" of codeine doses seemed to rest on the assumption that high doses of codeine saturated CYP2D6, which prevented further conversion of codeine to morphine, which is simply incorrect since we now know that codeine-6-glucuronide (C6G) is the main metabolite responsible for codeine's analgesia.[9] There is also no evidence that CYP2D6 inhibition is useful in treating codeine dependence,[21] though the metabolism of codeine to morphine (and hence further metabolism to glucuronide morphine conjugates) does have an effect on the abuse potential of codeine.[22] However, CYP2D6 has been implicated in the toxicity and death of neonates when codeine is administered to lactating mothers, particularly those with increased 2D6 activity ("ultra-rapid" metabolisers).[23][24]

Pharmacokinetics

The conversion of codeine to morphine occurs in the liver and is catalysed by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2D6. CYP3A4produces norcodeine and UGT2B7 conjugates codeine, norcodeine, and morphine to the corresponding 3- and 6- glucuronides. Approximately 6–10% of the Caucasians, 2% of Asians, and 1% of Arabs[25] are "poor metabolizers"; they have little CYP2D6, and codeine is less effective for analgesia in these patients (Rossi, 2004). Srinivasan, Wielbo and Tebbett speculate that codeine-6-glucuronide is responsible for a large percentage of the analgesia of codeine, and, thus, these patients should experience some analgesia.[10] Many of the adverse effects will still be experienced in poor metabolizers. Conversely, 0.5-2% of the population are "extensive metabolizers"; multiple copies of the gene for 2D6 produce high levels of CYP2D6 and will metabolize drugs through that pathway more quickly than others.

Some medications are CYP2D6 inhibitors and reduce or even completely block the conversion of codeine to morphine. The most well-known of these are two of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, paroxetine (Paxil) and fluoxetine (Prozac) as well as the antihistamine diphenhydramine and the antidepressant, buproprion (Wellbutrin, also known as Zyban). Other drugs, such asrifampicin and dexamethasone, induce CYP450 isozymes and thus increase the conversion rate.

Since codeine is a prodrug, metabolism differences have the opposite effect. Thus an extensive metabolizer may have adverse effects from a rapid buildup of codeine metabolites while a poor metabolizer may get little or no pain relief. CYP2D6 is dysfunctional in 7% of white and black Americans, resulting in reduced metabolism of codeine. Other individuals may have two or more copies of the CYP2D6 gene, resulting in rapid metabolism of the target drug. CYP2D6 metabolizes and activates codeine into morphine, which then undergoes glucuronidation. Life-threatening intoxication, including respiratory depression requiring intubation, can develop over a matter of days in patients who have multiple functional alleles of CYP2D6, resulting in ultra-rapid metabolism of opioids such as codeine into morphine.[26][27][28] The active metabolites of codeine, notably morphine, exert their effects by binding to and activating the µ-opioid receptor.

History

Codeine, or 3-methylmorphine, is an alkaloid found in the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum var. album, a plant in thepapaveraceae family. Opium poppy has been cultivated and utilized throughout human history for a variety of medicinal (analgesic, anti-tussive and anti-diarrheal) and hypnotic properties linked to the diversity of its active components, which include morphine, codeine and papaverine.

Codeine is found in concentrations of 0.9 to 3.0 per cent in opium prepared by the latex method from unripe pods of Papaver somniferum. The name codeine is derived from the Greek word kodeia (??de?a) for "poppy head". The relative proportion of codeine to morphine, the most common opium alkaloid at 4 to 23 per cent, tends to be somewhat higher in the poppy straw method of preparing opium alkaloids.

Until the beginning of the 19th century, raw opium was used in diverse preparations known as laudanum (see Thomas de Quincey's "Confessions of an English Opium-Eater", 1821) and paregoric elixirs, a number of which were popular in England since the beginning of the 18th century; the original preparation seems to have been elaborated in Leiden, the Netherlands around 1715 by a chemist named Lemort; in 1721 the London Pharmocopeia mentions an Elixir Asthmaticum, replaced by the term Elixir Paregoricum ("pain soother") in 1746.

The progressive isolation of opium's several active components opened the path to improved selectivity and safety of the opiates-based pharmacopeia.

Morphine had already been isolated in Germany by German pharmacist Friedrich Sertürner in 1804.[29] Codeine was first isolated decades later in 1832 in France by Pierre Robiquet, a French chemist and pharmacist already famous for the discovery of alizarin, the most widespread red dye, while working on refined morphine extraction processes. This paved the way for the elaboration of a new generation of safer, codeine-based specific antitussive and antidiarrheal formulations.

Codeine is currently the most widely-used opiate in the world,[15][30] and is one of the most commonly used drugs overall according to numerous reports by organizations including the World Health Organization and its League of Nations predecessor agency. It is one of the most effective orally administered opioid analgesics and has a wide safety margin. Its strength ranges from 8 to 12 percent of morphine in most people; differences in metabolism can change this figure as can other medications, depending on its route of administration.

While codeine can be directly extracted from opium, its original source, most codeine is synthesized from the much more abundant morphine through the process of O-methylation.[30][31]

By 1972, the effects of the Nixon War On Drugs had caused across-the-board shortages of illicit and licit opiates because of a scarcity of natural opium, poppy straw, and other sources of opium alkaloids, and the geopolitical situation was growing difficult for the United States. After a large percentage of the opium and morphine in the US National Stockpile of Strategic & Critical Materialswas tapped in order to ease severe shortages of medicinal opiates — the codeine-based antitussives in particular — in late 1973, researchers were tasked with finding a way to synthesize codeine and its derivatives. They quickly succeeded using petroleum or coal tar and a process developed at the United States' National Institutes of Health.

Numerous codeine salts have been prepared since the drug was discovered. The most commonly used are the hydrochloride (freebase conversion ratio 0.805), phosphate (0.736), sulphate (0.859), and citrate (0.842). Others include a salicylate NSAID, codeine salicylate (0.686), and at least four codeine-based barbiturates, the cyclohexenylethylbarbiturate (0.559), cyclopentenylallylbarbiturate (0.561), diallylbarbiturate (0.561), and diethylbarbiturate (0.619).

Dexpanthenol

Dexpanthenol : used as a moisturizer to treat or prevent dry, rough, scaly, itchy skin and minor skin irritations (e.g., diaper rash, skin burns from radiation therapy). Emollients are substances that soften and moisturize the skin and decrease itchingand flaking. Some products (e.g., zinc oxide, white petrolatum) are used mostly to protect the skin against irritation (e.g., from wetness).

Dexpanthenol is the stable alcoholic analog of pantothenic acid which is essential to normal epithelial function. It is a component of coenzyme A, which serves as a cofactor for a variety of enzyme-catalyzed reactions that are important in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fatty acids, proteins, gluconeogenesis, sterols, steroid hormones, and porphyrins. The topical use of dexpanthenol, the stable alcoholic analog of pantothenic acid, is based on good skin penetration and high local concentrations of dexpanthenol when administered in an adequate vehicle, such as water-in-oil emulsions. Topical dexpanthenol acts like a moisturizer, improving stratum corneum hydration, reducing transepidermal water loss and maintaining skin softness and elasticity. Activation of fibroblast proliferation, which is of relevance in wound healing, has been observed both in vitro and in vivo with dexpanthenol. Accelerated re-epithelization in wound healing, monitored by means of the transepidermal water loss as an indicator of the intact epidermal barrier function, has also been seen. Dexpanthenol has been shown to have an anti-inflammatory effect on experimental ultraviolet-induced erythema. Beneficial effects of dexpanthenol have been observed in patients who have undergone skin transplantation or scar treatment, or therapy for burn injuries and different dermatoses. The stimulation of epithelization, granulation and mitigation of itching were the most prominent effects of formulations containing dexpanthenol. In double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials, dexpanthenol was evaluated for its efficacy in improving wound healing. Epidermal wounds treated with dexpanthenol emulsion showed a reduction in erythema, and more elastic and solid tissue regeneration. Monitoring of transepidermal water loss showed a significant acceleration of epidermal regeneration as a result of dexpanthenol therapy, as compared with the vehicle. In an irritation model, pretreatment with dexpanthenol cream resulted in significantly less damage to the stratum corneum barrier, compared with no pretreatment. Adjuvant skin care with dexpanthenol considerably improved the symptoms of skin irritation, such as dryness of the skin, roughness, scaling, pruritus, erythema, erosion/fissures, over 3 to 4 weeks. Usually, the topical administration of dexpanthenol preparations is well tolerated, with minimal risk of skin irritancy or sensitization.

Eucalyptol

Eucalyptol: is a natural organic compound which is a colorless liquid. It is a cyclic ether and a monoterpenoid.

Flavoring and fragrance

Because of its pleasant spicy aroma and taste, eucalyptol is used in flavorings, fragrances, and cosmetics. Cineole based eucalyptus oil is used as a flavouring at low levels (0.002%) in various products, including baked goods, confectionery, meatproducts and beverages. In a 1994 report released by five top cigarette companies, eucalyptol was listed as one of the 599 additives to cigarettes. It is claimed that it is added to improve the flavor.

Medicinal

Eucalyptol suppository, for the treatment of some respiratory ailmentsEucalyptol is an ingredient in many brands of mouthwash and cough suppressant.

Primary Research:

In a 2003 study eucalyptol was found to control airway mucus hypersecretion and asthma, after in a previous study the authors found eucalyptol to suppress arachidonic acid metabolism and cytokine production in human monocytes.

In a 2004 study it was found to inhibit cytokine production in cultured human lymphocytes and monocytes.

In a 2004 study Eucalyptol was found to be an effective treatment for nonpurulent rhinosinusitis. Treated subjects experienced less headache on bending, frontal headache, sensitivity of pressure points of trigeminal nerve, impairment of general condition, nasal obstruction, and rhinological secretion. Side effects from treatment were minimal.

A 2000 study found Eucalyptol to reduce inflammation and pain when applied topically.[8] In a 2002 study it was found to kill leukaemia cells of two cultured human leukemia cell lines, but not cells of a human stomach cancer cell line in vitro.

Insecticide and repellent

Eucalyptol is used as an insecticide and insect repellent. Conversely, eucalyptol is one of many compounds that is attractive to males of various species of orchid bees, who apparently gather the chemical to synthesize pheromones; it is commonly used as bait to attract and collect these bees for study.

Funal Diastase

Fungal Diastase : is a starch degrading enzyme. It is used as an effective digestive aid and helps in digestion of carbohydrates in the diet. This digestive activity has been used to treat numerous digestive problems such as gas, bloating, heartburn, lactose intolerance, malabsorption, steatorrhea, pancreatic insufficiency, etc. It digests starch and carbohydrates from the diet into simple polysaccharides and sugar. Pepsin is a digestive protease active at acidic pH, released by the chief cells in the stomach that functions to degrade food proteins into peptides and amino acids. It assists in the digestion of food directly through the intestinal tract, prevents feelings of bloating and exhaustion after a big meal and helps in smooth passage of food though the gastrointestinal tract.

Ginkgo Biloba

Ginkgo Biloba : is a unique species of tree with no close living relatives. The tree is widely cultivated and introduced, since an early period in human history, and has various uses as a food and traditional medicine.

Ginkgos are large trees, normally reaching a height of 20–35 m (66–115 feet), with some specimens in China being over 50 m (164 feet). The tree has an angular crown and long, somewhat erratic branches, and is usually deep rooted and resistant to wind and snow damage. Young trees are often tall and slender, and sparsely branched; the crown becomes broader as the tree ages. During autumn, the leaves turn a bright yellow, then fall, sometimes within a short space of time (1–15 days). A combination of resistance to disease, insect-resistant wood and the ability to form aerial roots and sprouts makes ginkgos long-lived, with some specimens claimed to be more than 2,500 years old.

Ginkgo is a relatively shade-intolerant species that (at least in cultivation) grows best in environments that are well-watered and well-drained. The species shows a preference for disturbed sites; in the "semi-wild" stands at Tian Mu Shan, many specimens are found along stream banks, rocky slopes, and cliff edges. Accordingly, Ginkgo retains a prodigious capacity for vegetative growth. It is capable of sprouting from embedded buds near the base of the trunk (lignotubers, or basal chi chi) in response to disturbances, such as soil erosion. Old individuals are also capable of producing aerial roots (chi chi) on the undersides of large branches in response to disturbances such as crown damage; these roots can lead to successful clonal reproduction upon contacting the soil. These strategies are evidently important in the persistence of Ginkgo; in a survey of the "semi-wild" stands remaining in Tian Mu Shan, 40% of the Ginkgo specimens surveyed were multi-stemmed, and few saplings were present.

Stem

Ginkgo branches grow in length by growth of shoots with regularly spaced leaves, as seen on most trees. From the axils of these leaves, "spur shoots" (also known as short shoots) develop on second-year growth. Short shoots have very short internodes (so they may grow only one or two centimeters in several years) and their leaves are usually unlobed. They are short and knobby, and are arranged regularly on the branches except on first-year growth. Because of the short internodes, leaves appear to be clustered at the tips of short shoots, and reproductive structures are formed only on them (see pictures below - seeds and leaves are visible on short shoots). In Ginkgos, as in other plants that possess them, short shoots allow the formation of new leaves in the older parts of the crown. After a number of years, a short shoot may change into a long (ordinary) shoot, or vice versa.

Leaves

Ginkgo leaves in summer

Ginkgo leaves in autumnThe leaves are unique among seed plants, being fan-shaped with veins radiating out into the leaf blade, sometimes bifurcating (splitting) but never anastomosing to form a network.[4] Two veins enter the leaf blade at the base and fork repeatedly in two; this is known as dichotomous venation. The leaves are usually 5–10 cm (2-4 inches), but sometimes up to 15 cm (6 inches) long. The old popular name "Maidenhair tree" is because the leaves resemble some of the pinnae of the maidenhair fern, Adiantum capillus-veneris.

Leaves of long shoots are usually notched or lobed, but only from the outer surface, between the veins. They are borne both on the more rapidly-growing branch tips, where they are alternate and spaced out, and also on the short, stubby spur shoots, where they are clustered at the tips.

Reproduction

Ginkgos are dioecious, with separate sexes, some trees being female and others beingmale. Male plants produce small pollen cones with sporophylls each bearing twomicrosporangia spirally arranged around a central axis.

Female plants do not produce cones. Two ovules are formed at the end of a stalk, and after pollination, one or both develop into seeds. The seed is 1.5–2 cm long. Its fleshy outer layer (the sarcotesta) is light yellow-brown, soft, and fruit-like. It is attractive in appearance, but contains butanoic acid[5] (also known as butyric acid) and smells like rancid butter or vomit[6] when fallen. Beneath the sarcotesta is the hard sclerotesta (the "shell" of the seed) and a papery endotesta, with the nucellus surrounding the femalegametophyte at the center.[7]

Male flower.

Female flower.

The fertilization of ginkgo seeds occurs via motile sperm, as in cycads, ferns, mosses and algae. The sperm are large (about 70–90 micrometres)[8] and are similar to the sperm of cycads, which are slightly larger. Ginkgo sperm were first discovered by the Japanese botanist Sakugoro Hirase in 1896.[9] The sperm have a complex multi-layered structure, which is a continuous belt of basal bodies that form the base of several thousand flagella which actually have a cilia-like motion. The flagella/cilia apparatus pulls the body of the sperm forwards. The sperm have only a tiny distance to travel to the archegonia, of which there are usually two or three. Two sperm are produced, one of which successfully fertilizes the ovule. Although it is widely held that fertilization of ginkgo seeds occurs just before or after they fall in early autumn,[4][7] embryos ordinarily occur in seeds just before and after they drop from the tree.[10]

Glyceryl Guaiacolate

Glyceryl Guaiacolate: also know as Guaifenesin : is an expectorant drug sold over the counter and usually taken orally to assist the bringing up (expectoration) of phlegm from theairways in acute respiratory tract infections.

Uses

The principal use of guaifenesin is in the treatment of coughing, but the drug has numerous other uses, including medical, veterinary, and personal.

Effect and mechanism of action

Guaifenesin is thought to act as an expectorant by increasing the volume and reducing the viscosity of secretions in the trachea and bronchi. It also stimulates the flow of respiratory tract secretions, allowing ciliary movement to carry the loosened secretions upward toward the pharynx.[6] Thus, it may increase the efficiency of the cough reflex and facilitate removal of the secretions; however, objective evidence for this is limited and conflicting.

Treatment of coughing

A Cochrane Collaboration meta-analysis of over-the-counter medicines for acute cough in children and adults found no evidence for the effectiveness of any examined drug other than guaifenesin; evidence for guaifenesin was ambiguous.[7] Guaifenesin is sometimes combined with dextromethorphan, an antitussive.

Treatment of asthma

Guaifenesin is claimed to be effective in the treatment of the thickened bronchial mucosa characteristic of asthma.[citation needed] It works by drawing water into the bronchi. The water both thins mucus and lubricates the airway, facilitating the removal of mucus bycoughing. However, asthmatics should not use guaifenesin routinely.

Treatment of gout

Guaifenesin is a uricosuric, increasing excretion of uric acid from the blood serum into the urine.[8] This fact was discovered by chance, during a survey of hypouricemia in hospital inpatients.[9] Compared to other uricosuric drugs used to treat gout, guaifenesin is relatively mild.[citation needed]

Treatment of fibromyalgia

Because of its uricosuric effect, guaifenesin was chosen in the 1990s for the experimental guaifenesin protocol – a treatment forfibromyalgia. Proponents of the guaifenesin protocol believe that it treats fibromyalgia by removing excess phosphate from the body. However, a consumer alert on the Fibromyalgia Network's website[10] states that Dr. St. Amand's claims of guaifenesin's effects on fibromyalgia are groundless, and cites double-blind research by Robert Bennett, M.D., which found no significant differences between guaifenesin and a placebo in terms of any effect on fibromyalgia or its markers.[11]. Of note, the study by Bennett was completed in 1995. Besides the small numbers (16 guaifenesin, 15 placebo) and failure to warn patients about the blocking effects of salicylates other flaws in the project have been fully discussed by St. Amand (project consultant) on website, fibromyalgiatreatment.com.

Guaifenesin has not been approved by the FDA for the treatment of fibromyalgia, but no other clinical studies have been reported. The protocol has been adopted by many patients because of the anecdotal evidence of success. However, a more recent paper by Z. Zhang reported twenty-three altered cytokine/chemokine levels in the plasma of 92 women with fibromyalgia and 69 family members. Results were compared to 77 controls. Of the twenty-five tested cytokines/chemokines, 23 were abnormally elevated. Ten were lowered or normalized, 9 were raised, and five remained unchanged (all significant p levels)on guaifenesin treatment. [12]Feng J, Zhifang Z, Li W, Shen X, Song W, Yang C, Chang F, Longmate J, Marek C, St. Amand RP, Krontis T, Shively J, Sommer SS. Missense Mutations in the MEFV Gene Are Associated with Fibromyalgia Syndrome and Correlate with Elevated IL-beta Plasma Levels. PLosOne December 2009

Use to facilitate conception

Guaifenesin is widely used by women to facilitiate conception by thinning and increasing the amount of cervical mucus.[13]Evidence concerning the effectiveness of this use is almost entirely anecdotal; the exception[14] is a very small study without controls. One investigator[15] regards guaifenesin as the simplest but least effective method of improving cervical mucus. Following a medical article in Czech about guaifenesin in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea,[16] another very small but double-blind and placebo-controlled experiment[17] found that guaifenesin reduced primary dysmenorrhea, but the effect was not significant.

Side-effects

Consumption of guaifenesin in above-normal quantities has the potential to cause side-effects. Known side-effects include nausea,vomiting, and (rarely) the formation of kidney stones of uric acid (uric acid nephrolithiasis).[19] Nausea and vomiting can be reduced by taking guaifenesin with meals.[2] The risk of forming kidney stones can be reduced by maintaining good hydration and increasing the pH of urine (see Uric acid nephrolithiasis). Rarely, severe allergic reactions may occur, including a rash or swelling of the lips or face, which may require urgent medical assistance. Mild dry mouth or chapped lips may also occur when taking this medication. Drinking a glass of water is recommended each time one takes guaifenesin.[20] Water helps to reduce dry mouth,chapped lips, and the risk of kidney stones, and increases the effectiveness of the drug in hydrating mucus.

Ibuprofen

Ibuprofen : is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used for relief of symptoms of arthritis, fever, as ananalgesic (pain reliever), especially where there is an inflammatory component, and dysmenorrhea.

Ibuprofen is known to have an antiplatelet effect, though it is relatively mild and somewhat short-lived when compared with aspirin or other better-known antiplatelet drugs. In general, ibuprofen also acts as a vasodilator, having been shown to dilate coronary arteries and some other blood vessels. Ibuprofen was derived from propanoic acid by the research arm of Boots Groupduring the 1960s.[6] It was discovered by Andrew RM Dunlop, with colleagues Stewart Adams, John Nicholson, Vonleigh Simmons, Jeff Wilson and Colin Burrows, and was patented in 1961. Originally marketed as Brufen, ibuprofen is available under a variety of popular trademarks, including Motrin, Nurofen, Advil, and Nuprin.

L-Cysteine

L - Cysteine is an a-amino acid with the chemical formulaHO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH. It is a semi-essential amino acid, which means that it can bebiosynthesized in humans.[3] Its codons are UGU and UGC. Cysteine was considered to be a hydrophilic amino acid based on the belief that the thiol group interacts well with water. However, the cysteine side chain participates in the hydrophobic bonding system of the micelle. The quantitative comparison of the values of the critical micelle concentrations leads to the conclusion that the CH2SH group of amino acid has the same effect on the micelle stability as a methylene group of the hydrocarbon tail. Therefore, there is justification for the recently voiced assumptions of the hydrophobic nature of the cysteine side chain in proteins.[4][5][6] [7] The thiol side chain often participates in enzymatic reactions, serving as a nucleophile. The thiol is susceptible to oxidization to give the disulfide derivative cystine, which serves an important structural role in many proteins.

Papain

Papain : Papain is taken from the fruit of the papaya tree. It is used to make medicine.

Papain is used for pain and swelling (inflammation) as well as fluid retention following trauma and surgery. It is used as a digestive aid and for treating parasitic worms, inflammation of the throat and pharynx, shingles (herpes zoster) symptoms, ongoing diarrhea, hay fever, runny nose, and a skin condition called psoriasis. Papain is also used along with conventional treatments for tumors.

Some people apply papain directly to the skin to treat infected wounds, sores, and ulcers.

In manufacturing, papain is used in cosmetics,toothpaste, enzymatic soft contact lens cleaners, meat tenderizers, and meat products. It is also used for stabilizing and chill-proofing beer.

Simethicone

Simethicone : Simethicone is an anti-foaming agent that decreases the surface tension of gas bubbles, causing them to combine into larger bubbles in the stomach that can be passed more easily. Simethicone does not reduce or prevent the formation of gas in the digestive tract, rather, it increases the rate at which it exits the body. However, simethicone can relieve pain caused by gas in the intestines by decreasing foaming which then allows for passing of flatus. Simethicone is not absorbed by the body into the bloodstream, and is therefore considered relatively safe. National Institutes of Health (NIH) reports there are usually no side effects when Simethicone is taken as directed. Although simethicone has also been promoted as a treatment for colic, randomised controlled trials have not demonstrated efficacy for such use.

Simethicone solutions of differing concentration also have industrial applications for reducing foaming in certain chemical processes.

The use of simethicone can help reduce visual obstructions caused by intestinal gas during ultrasounds of the abdomen, although it has no effect on extraluminal gas outside the colon.

Vitamin B1

Vitamin B2

Vitamin B5

Vitamin B6

Vitamin D3

Vitamin E

Vitamin A